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Full text of "The uses and advantages of Solvay calcium chloride in concrete construction."

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Contents 

Effects of Calcium Chloride on Concrete 6 

Lower Water-Cement Ratio 7 

Greater Strength Through Proper Curing 9 

Curing Concrete Used in Building Construction in 

Early Strength and Acceleration 11 

Advantage of Early Strength 13 

Waterproofing I* 

Effects of Calcium Chloride on Reinforcing 15 

Montreal Rail and Water Terminal Warehouse 16-17 

Effect of Temperature on Strength of Concrete 19 

Use of Calcium Chloride in Cold Weather 2! 

Various Types of Concrete Construction 25 

Concrete Products 

2o 

Directions for Use 

29 

Specifications 

o 1 



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is an absolute necessity for making the best and strongest 
concrete. 

In the light of its present uses it stands as the most reliable 
method by which the concrete used for building construction can 
be satisfactorily cured. 

The value of curing this type of concrete construction is now 
beginning to be fully appreciated by architects, engineers, and 
contractors. To further this end The Solvay Process Company 
has compiled the information embodied in this booklet. 



Effects of Calcium Chloride on Concrete 

EXHAUSTIVE experimental tests and the practical results 
obtained in many of the most impressive structures of the 
contemporary building period have proved conclusively that the 
benefits obtained through the use of Solvay Calcium Chloride 
with Portland cement are highly desirable to architect, builder 
and owner alike. 

The character and dependability of these results have been 
definitely established. Tests made by the United States Bureau of 
Standards, The American Society for Testing Materials, The 
Portland Cement Association, The United States Engineers, The 
Solvay Process Company, and many other reliable authorities on 

concrete have left no room 
for doubt. 

The water-cement ratio i^ 
the most important factor 
determining the strength of 
concrete, according to data 
published by The Portland 
Cement Association. 

It is generally agreed by 
all authorities, including 
this Association, that the 
best concrete is produced by 
a mix in which the propor- 
tion of gauging water is re- 
latively low. 

Detroit Free Press Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 

Archill rf, Albert Kahn. 

Contractors, Crowdl & Little Con-t. Co. 




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< fatario 1 io\ ernmcnl HniM i i nadian \ 1 1 

Exposition in Toronto I ( 

( ontracto? ■ Sullivan and Fi 



Lower Water-Cement Ratio 

WIIKN Solvay Calcium Chloride is incorporated in the mix 
less water may be used to obtain tin 1 same degree of 
workability as concrete prepared under usual conditions. This 
means that t lit* concrete can develop maximum strength bj 
reason of its low water-cement ratio without sacrificing its 
workability. 

( )ne of the benefits of Solvay ( Calcium < 'hloride used integrally 
is the production of a fatty mix — one which hangs together 
and prevents the segregation of its components and which at the 
same time IS more easily handled and is ideally adapted for 
chuting and conveying. 

This is accomplished through an action which reveals one of 
its most important functions in the concrete mix — it holds moisture 
uniformly throughout the concrete. Through the same action it 
enables the concrete to retain thi> moisture during the curing 
period. This prevents shrinkage and causes the concrete to set 
to a more constant volume. (Dr. F. Kellig, Zement, No. \5 to 
1922. C.R. Platzmann, Zement, Vol. tl, 1922. Dr. A. Guttmann, 
Director. Dusseldorf Cement Inst.) 



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/'. WJ. Phuc 

The World-famous Building of the Chicago Tribune at Chicago, Illinois. 
Architects, Howells and Hood. Contractor*. ]{. C. Wiedholt Compaiix 

for the Caissons and Foundation Work. Successfully I feed Solvaj Cal- 
cium Chloride in their ( Cment Work. 



19 



I 



Greater Strength Through Proper Curing 

T is essential that moisture he furnished concrete to secure 
proper hydration of the cement, and insure maximum 
strength. 

The tests which are tabulated in Figure 1 clearly illustrate 
the fact that properly cured concrete attains a degree of strength 
far greater than that of concrete which has not been furnished 
with the moisture necessary for hydration. 



we- 




I s 



Taken from Figure /3 . A rt/c/e by 

Professor //. J. Gf/key 
Am. Con. Inst. Proceedings /9Z6 



Figure 1— Curves showing relative increase in compressive strength gained 
through proper curing. 

A distinct advantage in curing with Solvay Calcium Chloride 
as an admixture is that the curing proceeds uniformly throughout 
the entire thickness of the concrete. The distribution of moisture 
is maintained as though many 
minute sponges saturated 
with water were present in 
the concrete. 

The importance of thi^ 
curing method can readily be 
recognized since it offers a 
means of producing denser, 
stronger concrete which re- 
sists wear better. 

Terminal Warehouse Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Architects and Contractors, Turner Con- 
struction Co. 




41 



f 10 ] 
Curing Concrete Used in Building Construction 

THOSE concerned with building today have recognized the 
urgent need for some method of curing the concrete used in 
structures. Concrete is not finished until it is cured, and to date 
the cover methods of curing have not Ween found adaptable to 
structural concrete 1 . The curing methods used on concrete pave- 
ments which require earth or straw coverings and constant 
sprinkling are impracticable for structures. 

Solvay Calcium Chloride presents an ideal solution of this 
problem. Curing concrete with Calcium Chloride is not only an 
economical and direct method, but it also provides other benefits 

which alone would be sufficient to dictate its use. 

The forms on concrete afford it some protection against pre- 
mature drying out. 'Hi is alone, however, is not sufficient to insure 
the amount of moisture which concrete must have to attain its 
maximum strength. 

Structural conditions particularly during cool weather offer 
many obstacles to supplying this need by sprinkling. However, 
Solvay Calcium Chloride incorporated in the mix. supplies it 
readily by attracting and holding this needed moisture. 

Complete 1 hydration can then take place naturally and the 

concrete is enabled to obtain its full strength in much less than 

the usual time. To obtain the full Strength from concrete laid 
during low temperatures. Calcium Chloride ifl a distinct neces- 
sity. During the warm months it offers an additional safeguard 
because it prevents the evaporation of the necessary moist nre 
111 t lie concrete. 




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The American Furniture Mart al Chicag I aois Wchitect, 
Hrnr> Elaeder. I I I Simmons & ( ompany, and 

\. Mas Dunning. Builders, Wells Brothers < n Company. 



Ea rly Strength and A cceleratio n 

IN addition to curing concrete properly, Solvay Calcium Chlo- 
ride gives it far greater early strength and accelerates its 
hardening to a marked degree. 

The most important effect of this acceleration is within the 
first few hours. To the builder it is especially significant thai 
concrete pavements and floors cured with Solvay Calcium 
Chloride are hard enough to be walked on one hour after they 
are laid. Untreated concrete will generally require at least four 
hours to reach this point of hardness. 

In this connection, attention is directed to the investigation 
carried on by Duff A. Abrams for the Portland Cement Associa- 
tion, as noted in his paper read before the American Society for 
Testing Materials. {Proceedings A. S, T. M. 19i 



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Table Rock House Under Construction. The Temporary 
Enclosure Protecting the Work is Entirely Covered by 
Frozen Spray from Niagara Falls. 




Table Hock House, Niagara Falls, Ool 
( ontractorx, Pigott-Healy Constructs •• 
Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 



13 



After testing 7,500 compression specimens, Professor Abrams 
reported that Calcium Chloride produced an increase in concrete 
strength as indicated in the following table: 



Comparative Strength Ratios 



Concrete J days 7 days 28 days 3 mo. 

Untreated 100 100 100 100 

Treated with 2 to 4% 

Calcium Chloride. ... 170 125 110 112 



I i/r. 

100 
117 



■ > yrs. 
100 

118 



Under average conditions, concrete that has been treated with 
the proper quantity of Calcium Chloride will attain at the end 
of 48 hours the strength equal to that of untreated concrete at 
the end of 7 days. 

In order to attain maximum acceleration with the particular 
brand of cement used tests should be made to determine the 
proper amount of Calcium Chloride to be added per bag of 
cement. 

Advantage of Early Strength 

THE early strength secured by curing concrete with Solvay 
Calcium Chloride offers another distinct advantage which is 
not immediately obvious. Calcium Chloride improves the quality 
of the concrete because the early strength it produces enables the 
concrete to resist better the temperature and moisture changes 
which create considerable internal stress. 

Then, too, the time saved by the use of the Solvay Calcium 
Chloride method of curing, results in a great economy in the use 
of forms, which can be removed in half the usual time. 

Economies of this character must recommend the use of Solvay 
Calcium Chloride to the pro- 
fessions and trades concern- 
ed with modern concrete 
construction. And of greater 
consideration is the fact that 
besides saving time and 
equipment, Solvay Calcium 
Chloride is giving to concrete 
greater early strength and an 
additional factor of safety. 

The Motor Mart Garage, in Boston, Outstanding 
Among its Type in the United States. Architect, 
Ralph H. Doane. Builders, Chase and Gilbert. 




[ 14 3 




Lincoln Safe Deposit ' ompanj Building Men York 
irchitect, George \ Kingsley. Builders, John Lowry, Inc 



Waterproofing 

AS previously mentioned, Solvay Calcium Chloride holds 
. moisture uniformly throughout the m;i^ of concrete. For 
this reason the same degree of workability in concrete can be 
obtained with less water when Calcium Chloride is incorporated 
in the mix. The smaller proportion of mixing water- produces 
concrete which is much denser and far more waterproof. 

Early hydration of the cement particles resulting from the addi- 
tion of Solvay ( 'alcium ( 'hloride to the mix, causes more complete 
hydration. 'I his action enables the concrete to at tain the density 
necessary for waterproofing qualities, even in its early stagu 



C 15] 



Effects of Calcium Chloride on Reinforcing 

THE incorporation of Calcium Chloride in Portland Cement 
concrete does not cause the corrosion of reinforcing steel. 
This has been established by data collected over a long period of 
years during which a careful study was made of this problem. The 
consistency of the mix and the manner in which the concrete is 
worked around the reinforcing are the vital factors in the cause 
and prevention of such corrosion. 

Such an authority as Mr. J. C. Pearson, former physicist of 
the Bureau of Standards, stated in a discussion before the Amer- 
ican Society for Testing Materials {Proceedings A. S. T. M . 1923, 
pages 327-328) concerning reinforcing steel in six-year old con- 
crete test specimens containing Calcium Chloride:— 

"The majority of people would pass upon them (steel rods) as 
being entirely satisfactory. In the rase of the specimens buried 
in concrete, corrosion is absent over the greater portion of the 
surface of the rods, what rust occurred being localized apparently 
where voids occurred on the surface of the steel. Comparisons of 
the one-year and five-year specimens indicate that corrosion is 
not progressive." 

Tests conducted by the Canada Cement Company, Limited, 
with test specimens of 1-2-4 concrete and 1-3 and 1-4 cement 
mortar in which reinforcing steel had been embedded, reveal that 
Calcium Chloride incorporated in the concrete mix does not 
cause corrosion of the steel. 

"Corrosion," the company states, "was found only on the steel 
embedded in the dry mix. None was found in the mortar mixed 
to 125% consistency, which is about the usual consistency used 
in the construction of reinforced concrete/' 

The State of Pennsylvania 
has built concrete roads which 
contained 2% and \% of Cal- 
cium Chloride incorporated in 
the mix. After seven years of ser- 
vice an examination of the mesh 
reinforcing used in them re- 
vealed no evidence of corrosion. 

Thayer Hotel. Wesl Point, N V. 
Builder*. John Lowry, Inc. 

Architects, Caughey & Evans. 




t 16 I 





4 

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in'ii 



December 30. 1!HG. 



January 27, l!t-2? 



^4 Practical Demonstration of the Value of Solvay 
Calcium Chloride under Severe Conditions 

Montreal Rail and Water Terminals Warehouse Project 



AC. HAMMOND, District Manager, 
• lished in "Municipal Improvements' 

statements. 



Parklap, Inc., in an article pub- 
for June, 1927, makes the following 



"The Montreal Rail and Water Terminals Warehouse is a ten story reinforced concrete 
building with about 600,000 square feet of floor space. The contract for this building was 
signed September Kith, 1926, and occupancy of half the building was required June 1, 1927. 

"This made the job a winter weather job and made it necessary to pour concrete without 
interruption all through the winter. The half of the building which was required on June 
1st was rushed so that the roof was poured on January 28th, 1927. 

"The area of this section was about "25,000 square feet on each floor. About 12,000 
yards of concrete were poured under very severe weather conditions. The thermometer in 
Montreal ranges from freezing to 15 c below zero, during the months of December and 
January. 

"Calcium chloride was used in the proportion of two pounds to each sack of cement. 
Salamanders and canvas were left in place 48 hours or until necessary to start some work 
on the floor above. Removal of forms was started 48 hours after concrete was poured. 

"No concrete was frozen. Progress was made at the rate of one floor every eight daj B. 
The quality of the work is as good as work done in summer weather. Unit costs of the work 
have been less than the unit costs on a similar job performed last summer provided the 
cost of winter weather protection is disregarded." 

A test was made on this job with the following results: 



Taup. Start — Plus 7°. 


Temp, Finish- 


-Plus 17° 


Without Calcium 


WUkS% Calcium 


First crystals started 






40 min. 


1 hr. 40 min. 


Surface stiffening 






55 min. 


■■> hrs. m min. 


Frozen J4" thick 








No. 


Frozen 1" thick 








No. 


Frozen . . . 






4 hrs. 40 min. 


No. 


Start setting 






Never 


3 hrs. 10 min. 


Set solid 






Never 


4 hrs. 25 min. 






I 17 1 



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May 4, 1947 



Completed October 10, 1927. 



In his letter of September 
Hammond states: 



1927, to Solvay Sales Corporation, Mr. 



"The value of calcium chloride is two-fold. It increases the speed of setting and delays 
the time of freezing. The saving effected by using calcium chloride consists of less time of 
cement finishers, less amount of canvas necessary, less time for burning coke in the sala- 
manders, and earlier completion of the work, and more important than these— the lower 
cost of forms, steel and concrete on account of the earlier stripping. It decreases the time 
lost between the different operations and increases the efficiency of the cement. 
"The Solvay Calcium Chloride was entirely satisfactory." 

Wry truly yours, 

PARKLAP INCORPORATED. 




© Fairthil . \ r, Inc. 

Aerial View of Montreal Rail & Water Terminals. Ltd. 
Architect, Chas. H. Moores. General Contractor*. Parklap. Inc. 



_ 



[18! 




Figure 2 

Curves showing 
percentage of 28 
day -^rength (at 
70° F.) attained 
by concrete 
poured at various 
temperatures. 



Figure 3 

( urvcs showing 
relative increase 
in internal tem- 
perature caused 
by addition of 

Calcium Chloride 
bo concrete | by 
John R Baylia, 
Kilt ration Engi- 
neer, Chicago, 
in "( oncrete '" 

August. ]!K>7 



[ 19 



Effect of Temperature on Strength 
of Concrete 

THE damaging effects on concrete caused by exposure to low 
temperatures during the curing period have long been recog- 
nized, but the importance of protecting concrete from low tem- 
peratures is even today too of ten disregarded. (Fig.2, seepage 18). 
A. R. Lord, in his notes on "Wacker Drive," (A.C.I. Pro- 
ceedings, 1927. p. 59-61,) states: "We found on Wacker Drive 
that one degree change in temperature was roughly equal to .50 
pounds per square inch change in strength at 28 days. 

"As between 75 degrees average 28 day temperature (July) and 
55 degrees (May and October) this means a loss of 1,000 pounds 
per square inch in strength. 

"No precautions are ordinarily taken in the field at this time 
of the year and yet here is a variation in strength equal to a change 
of .15 in the water cement ratio or of 1 gallon of water per sack of 
cement. 

"Furthermore, our 6 and 12-month tests, while too few in 
number to be at all conclusive, indicate that concrete placed 
under cool temperatures in April and May never catches up with 
that placed under midsummer 
temperatures." 

However, the dangers of 
laying concrete during cold 
weather can to a great measure 
be avoided by the use of Sol- 
vay Calcium Chloride. 

Calcium Chloride incorpo- 
rated in the mix accelerates 
the setting of the concrete and 
increases the internal tempera- 
ture of the mass (Fig. 3, see 
page 18), which is a large fac- 
tor in maintaining the proper 
temperature during the curing 
period. 

Maccabees Building, Detroit, Mich. 

Architect, Albert Kahn, Inc. 
Contractors, H. J. Christman Co. 






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$ ' k 






Bankers Building. CUrk & Adams Street. Chicago, 111. 
General Contractor*. Dieks Construction Co. 
Architects D. H. Burnham. 



I 21 ] 



Use of Calcium Chloride in Cold Weather 

CALCIUM Chloride is mow considered a necessity for con- 
crete work which is to l>e completed during the winter 
months. Ordinary conditions have involved SO many difficulties 
in cold weather that Calcium Chloride has gained recognition 
as an important factor in the solution of the cold weather 
problem. 

In "Concrete Highway Magazine' 1 for November, 1924, the 
following statement appears: "The only chemical recommended 
for addition to the mixing water is Calcium Chloride. This 
material possesses the property of lowering the freezing poinl of 
the water and accelerating the setting of the concrete*. It is used 
by being dissolved in the mixing water. It is generally sold in 
crystalline form and is readily soluble in water." 

At the same time tin* usual precautions must be taken to be 
certain of positive protection. The use of salamanders and the 
heating of aggregate materials should not he neglected when 
concrete is placed at temperatures near freezing. 

The Portland Cement Association, in a booklel entitled, "Pre- 
cautions for Concrete Pavement Construction in Cold Weather," 
under the section headed, " Use of Calcium Chloride and Similar 
Compounds in Cold Weather Construction," submits the follow - 
ing information: "Within certain limitations Calcium Chloride 
or Calcium Oxychloride may he used in Portland Cement 
mixtures to hasten hardening and to increase early strengths. 

"The amount of the ad- 
mixture required to produce 
the most beneficial effect 
seems to be dependent up- 
on the Chlorine content. 
Only small amounts of the 
admixtures may be used to 
advanta 

"The greatest acceleration 
is obtained with 2 to 4 per- 
cent of Calcium Chloride or 
7 to 10 percent of Calcium 

University < Tub, Boston Mmm 

\1 n I l.hnsoo. 
Builders, \\ \ \ U \ Root. 




22 1 




Detroit Railway and Harbor Terminal. 
Architect, Albert Kahn. Contractors, Parklap, Inc. 




The SesquM cntennial Stadium at Philadelpfa 
Contractors, Turner Construction Co. ArchiU 



i reinfect, Simon & Simon. 



23 



Oxychloride by weight of the cement. With these percentages, 
tests covering a period of three years show no indications of re- 
duced strength. If quantities of these materials greater than 
the above amounts are employed, the strength decreases. 

"When these compounds are used in cold weather work, they 
should not he used as a substitute for heating the materials and 
furnishing proper protection and heat to the finished structure, 
hut only as an added precaution and as a means of shortening 
the curing period." 

When Solvay Calcium Chloride is used in the mix, it is not 
necessary to provide this protection for so long a time as when 
plain concrete is used. It can easily he seen that when it is possible 
to gain sufficient strength in half ordinary time, both the cost of 
protection and the time of greatest hazard also are reduced 
by half. 

Experiments along these lines are reported by M. Anstett, in 
Pit and Quarry, August 31st, 19 L 27, as follows: "Mortars having 
Calcium Chloride incorporated that were exposed to a tempera- 
ture of 68 degrees Fahrenheit all gave remarkably high mechanical 
resistance, while when they were made with the addition of pure 
water, their resistance was almost nil, which agrees with the 
results that were obtained in former experiments. The use of 
Calcium Chloride may therefore be held to be of great import- 
ance in the preparation of mortars during the cold months of 
the year." 

To make certain these results are obtained, specimens sub- 
jected to the same curing conditions as the mass of concrete 
should be made and tested in the field. 

This is highly advisable because the neglect of proper pre- 
cautions in protecting con- 



crete against cold can nul- 
lify much of the effort 
which is made to obtain 
high strength in concrete 
by use of Solvay Calcium 
Chloride. 



V*' 








The Salvador Rodriguez Memorial 
Building at Tampa, Florida. 



[24 1 




Phikdelphii "Inquirer " 
Phikdelpli P 
Pttikddphii i 



[ 25] 



Solvai/ Calcium Chloride in Various Ti/pes 
of Concrete Construction 

MANY of the foregoing conclusions have already suggested 
tin 1 value of Solvay Calcium Chloride in specialized types 

of concrete construction work. Its value as an admixture in 

cemenl mortar has been demonstrated by many of the results of 

experiments here noted in connection with concrete. 

In poured concrete work too, it has Keen demonstrated that 
the quick setting and greater strength produced through the use 
of Solvay Calcium Chloride are of inestimable value. In further 
addition to the benefits previously discussed, Solvay offers man} 

special advantages in the construction of floors, walks, and other 
work requiring cement finishing. 

The use of Solvay Calcium Chloride increases the cementing 
qualities as well as the tensile and compressive strength of con- 
crete. Its action at once hardens and densities the concrete and SO 

increases its resistance to dusting. 

Since concrete or cement mortar cured with Solvay Calcium 
Chloride will absorb considerably less water than that gauged 
with water alone, the concrete so produced reveals less porosity. 
It resists wear better and also shows a greater resistance against 

acids and alkalies. 

Solvay ( alcium ( Chloride makes t he concrete or cement mortar 
more workable and plastic. This so-called "fatty" mix promotes 
quicker work and easier troweling. As a result the particles arc 

cemented together, producing a smooth surface which is much 
more waterproof than one obtained with untreated concrete. 

These qualities arc highly 
desirable for the construction 
of concrete chimneys, side- 
walks and the concrete Boors 
of buildings, especially for fac- 
tories, warehouses, - 
etc. The use of Solvay Calcium 
Chloride materially eliminates 
overtime and cuts down the 
usual period of delay experi- 




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The Park Square Building, Boston, Mass. Architects, Densmore, 
LeClearand Bobbins. Builders, W. A. and H. A. Boot. 

enced before placing the work in service and decreases mainten- 
ance expense by prolonging the life of floor surfaces. 

On the Park Square Building, Boston, Mass., the use of Solvay 
Calcium Chloride saved the contractors over $6,000 in the 

elimination of overtime on floor finishing alone. The hardness of 
the surface of finished concrete which has been mixed with Solvay 
is also characteristic of the entire thickness of the mass, because 
when Solvay Calcium Chloride is used integrally it cures the 
concrete uniformly throughout. 

Concrete Products — Blocks, Bricks, Pipes, 
Piles, Details, and Precast Work 

IX THE manufacture of concrete products Solvay Calcium 
Chloride offers curing methods which tests have proved far 
more effective than anything yet discovered in this field. 

Many plants manufacturing the^e articles have been using 
steam as a curing agent. Experiments now reveal that equal 

results at lower OOSt can be obtained through the use of ( alcium 

Chloride alone and that almost unbelievable speed and depend- 
ability in curing can be obtained where Bteam and ( alcium ( hlo- 
ride are used in combination. 
At the Watertown Arsenal, tests were made on concrete brick 



I 27 ] 

manufactured in the plant of the Bay State Brick and Stone 
Company, of Haverhill, Mass. These tests showed that at the end 
of 7 days, the brick cured by the addition of c 2 r <J ( 'alcium Chloride 
had gained even greater strength thanthosecuredwithsteainalone. 

Results obtained by the Tebaldi Supply Company, of Indian 
Orchard, Mass., and the Springfield Sand and Tile Company, 
Springfield, Mass., reveal that blocks cured with steam and 
Calcium Chloride used together reached a compressive strength 
of over 1,000 pounds in £4 hours! 

Results of tests made at the Testing Laboratories of the City of 
Springfield, on blocks produced by the Springfield Sand and Tile 
Company, are tabulated below. 



Age : ', knurs 
Curing Method Pound* per 
Square Inch 

%% Calcium 

Chloride alone . . . 246 


Ag 
Pi 

Sq 


;\ hours 
rands i» r 

nan Inch 

341 


. hn : .' hoi 
Pounds p 
Squaw In 

482 


trs 

r 
h 


A'h ,' days 
Pounds i>> r 
Squart Inch 

808 


Steam alone 

24 hours 


319 




556 




531 




580 


2% Calcium Chloride 
and Steam w 24 hours . 


781 




952 




101.-) 




1098 



The strength computed in the above table is based on the gross 
area of the blocks. The net area of the blocks was approximately 
one-half of the gross area. The compressive strength therefore, 
based on the net bearing surface, was double these figures. 




Canadian Hail and Harbour Terminals, Limited, Toronto. 

Architect, Charles H. Moores. General Contractors, Parklap, Inc. 



28 




The Verendrye Bridge at Sanish, North Dakota. Beginning of the 
Work of Spanning the Frozen Missouri River in Mid-Winter. 




Irye Bridge Completed. Solvay Calcium Chloride w.-.s 
■a Important Factor in Constructing (In- Concn I 
Built by Minnnmolii Bridgi 



¥ 



C 29 ] 

Directions for Using Solvay Calcium Chloride 

THE directions for using Solvay Calcium Chloride are so simple that it is 
possible to have the work of mixing done by ordinary labor. 
The Calcium Chloride should be added to the mix in solution form. A stand- 
ard Solvay Calcium Chloride solution is a convenient one for assuring accurate 
and uniform addition of the desired quantity of Calcium Chloride. 

Standard Calcium Chloride Solution 

TO PREPARE a standard solution of Solvay Calcium Chloride, fill a .30 
gallon barrel about two-thirds full of water and put in 200 pounds of Solvay 
Calcium Chloride, stir until the Calcium Chloride is thoroughly dissolved. 
Then add enough water to fill up the barrel. This will produce 50 gallons of a 
standard solution containing 4 pounds of Calcium Chloride per gallon, or 1 
pound per quart. 

Adding Calcium Chloride to the Mix 

AFTER the solution has been prepared, mix the batch of concrete or cement 
l\ mortar in the usual way except that for each bag of cement used, add the 
necessary amount of Solvay Calcium Chloride solution with the gauging water, 
which should be cut down by a volume at least equal to that of the Calcium 
Chloride solution added. 

Quantity to Use 

IT HAS usually proved most satisfactory and convenient to use the quantity 
of cement in the mix as the basis for determining the necessary amount of 
Solvay Calcium Chloride to be added. 

Two pounds of Solvay Calcium Chloride per bag of cement have proved 
sufficient to effect proper curing under average conditions with various brands 
of cement. The amount actually required on a job will vary slightly, depending 
on prevailing conditions, such as temperature, humidity, location, kind of 
mix, etc. 

To determine maximum acceleration which can be obtained with any partic- 
ular brand of cement, test specimens containing various amounts of Solvay 
Calcium Chloride should be prepared and tested under actual field conditions. 
The quantity of Calcium Chloride to 
be used can be readily determined 
from a comparison of the strengths 
attained. 

Not more than 4 pounds nor less 
than 1 pound of Calcium Chloride 
per bag of cement should be used 
to derive maximum benefit. 

Grain Tanks of Santa Fe Elevator 
Near Argentine, Kansas. 
Constructed by John S. Metcalf Co. 







CONSIDERING the advantages and saving it effects for the contractor, 
( al< iiim ( hloride i- negligible in cost .At tl i e quantity of 

2 poundi per bag of cement, the added coal of using it aril] amount t»> from 
throe to five oenti p< lanl east of the Mississippi, depending on 

quantity purchased and shipping point. In tit*- West, the cost is slightly highei 



Shipment 

SolAA^ Calcium Chloride is shipped in non-returnable metal drums for 
irbich no additional charge is made These standard drumi contain 
pounds net each It is also shipped in moist paper-lined, burlap bs 

containing 100 poundi each Solvaj Calcium Chloride in bags requires the 

.,,,,,, vw .,ti,« | in lit II i handling ihe l>agfl makes tln^ 

at 1 r.n 1 1 i 

I . , | < 1 1 j 1 1 1 Chloride ii carried in stock in more t h ;t r 
tl,,. [ ,,,-, which insures prompt deliver) a'ith minimum transpoi 

t,,,,, i uad shipments dii the plant tin Traffic Depart 

L of the Company illy equipped and I to facilitate deli 

II) 

/ hnical v 

II |- quite nat ixral 1 1 rtusual problem* a ill 

< l Mthough this bool 

l . . . 




* 



131 1 

Specifications 

THE following are the correct specifications \'<>v using Solvay Calcium 
Chloride in Portland Cement concrete construct ion work. 

Quantity: The Calcium Chloride shall In- added 
of two pounds of Calcium Chloride per bag of cemec 

desired, in an amount found satisfactory I cold 

weather this amount may be increased, bul qo! i i 

to each bag of cement. In rich mixes, and in i Found 

desirable to reduce the amount to one pound oi I 
In every ease be prepared to find that the re quickly than in plaii 

Water: The water content shall he kepi 8 ffkable 

concrete. Calcium Chloride ia more effective m a d 
it workable, than in a mix containing more 

C kLCIUM Chloride Soli HON : Thia solut 
tain four pounds of Calcium Chloride per gallon laolu 

a fifty gallon barrel about two-thirds Full of lundred po 

(two bags) of flake Calcium Chloride and stir until the < al ium 

Add enough more water to fill the 
throughout. The fifty gallons of solution wil I Fourpound 

per gallon or one pound per quart. 

Adding Calchm Chloride to no. Mj\ I 
pounds of Calcium Chloride per bag of ceii 

Calcium Chloride solution for each bag ol 
Calcium Chloride to each quart, must be added 

The Calcium Chloride solution should BOt 
enters the mixer drum. The Calcium Chlorid 
mixing water in computing the water-cement 
should be reduced by an amount al least equal to the q 
solution which is added. 

The materials, after being placed in the mixer drum, should led to 

insure uniform distribution of the * alcium < Ihloride. 

Thorough mixing also makes the concrete more prork i 
The usual time specified for mixing ordinarj concreteina 
that the strength may be increased as much aa l"' \ by d 
instead of one minute. 

Protection: Calcium Chloride ia also a valuable adjum I I 
work. It not only reduces the Freeting point of water, but its * 
additional heat which reduces considerably the tune usually required fof prote | 
crete, and is an added factor of safety. 

The usual precautions, such as heat...- the • f, " r - 

wise protecting the cm ICTete, should hot rirtly observed i«n-..ld rk 

/-. /^ ftc ■ t. ■ \ i,.,ii L»» thai manufactured h\ II ; Process 

I v... n m Chloride: 11ns matenaJ snau o< inai m»mu« 

l( >anv. or a product of e (l ual quality. It >halleont,,n:: so', pure an! 
Chloride and shall be free from Magnesium ( Monde. It shall be packed in m..„h,r.. | 
i •,■>., . i .l.,11 |„. ;„ r| u . H-ike form. When tcNfed b\ >«>ra- 

->. or in airtight drums, and snail w in um dbski 

lory screens, it shall meet the following requirements 

ion' ; 

Through :{ e in. mesh screen 

Through 20 in. mesh screen, not more than 



^A\ 



SOLVAY SALES CORPORATION 

Alkalies and Chemical Products Manufactured by 
The Sofray Process Company 

40 Rector Street, New York 



Branch Offices 

Chicago Cincinnati Cleveland Boston Detroit 

Pittsburgh Indianapolis Syracuse 

Kansas City Philadelphia Atlanta St. Louis 




OLVAY 
7-80 % 

FLAKE 

ALCIUM 
CHLORIDE 



Atherton * Carrfef w 

Sem V«Tk 



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